The megalomania of Commodus was not limited to the Colosseum. Roman History. Marcus Aurelius … Essentially you became emperor in that era through being able to … Commode-Hercule et l'anthropologie hercaléenne,", M.P. Sister of Trajan's father: Giacosa (1977), p. 7. An illustration of the murder of Commmodus. On 20 January 175, Commodus entered the College of Pontiffs, the starting point of a career in public life. He accompanied his father to Germania a year later, where Aurelius died in 180, leaving Commodus as sole and undisputed emperor of Rome. The consensus was that it was below his office to participate as a gladiator. The first crisis of the reign came in 182, when Lucilla engineered a conspiracy against her brother. Cassius Dio declared that Commodus “was not naturally wicked” but that “his cowardice, made him the slave of his companions.”. During the preparations for the campaign against Cassius, Commodus assumed his toga virilis on the Danubian front on 7 July 175, thus formally entering adulthood. Lucilla was exiled to Capri and later killed. Like emperors after him, one way Commodus kept power was by a. lowering taxes on wealthy people. He always won because the gladiators let him and he spared their lives. The emperor now changed his name to Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus. He wasn’t the first person to do this (Nero had started it), but Commodus devalued Roman coins by more than any emperor since then. He promptly renamed himself Caesar Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus, and, throughout his rule from 177 to 192 AD, he became increasingly cruel and sadistic. Commodus was born on 31 August 161, the son of Marcus Aurelius.He was a member of the pagan Roman House of Aurelius.Commodus was ambitious, brave (although not on the battlefield), and loyal … Commodus was awarded the title of Augustus in 177 by Aurelius, making him co-emperor of Rome. Information about the Roman emperor Commodus. Methuen, 1898. On 15 October 184 at the Capitoline Games, a Cynic philosopher publicly denounced Perennis before Commodus. His name changed throughout his reign; see changes of name for earlier and later forms. Born Lucius Aurelius Commodus, he is known as a ruler who designed a major turning point in Roman history. Emperor.  According to Herodian, spectators of Commodus thought it unbecoming of an emperor to take up arms in the amphitheater for sport when he could be campaigning against barbarians among other opponents of Rome. Commodus (Lucius Aurelius Commodus Antoninus, 31 August 161 – 31 December 192) was Roman Emperor from 180 to 192. He kept most of the advisers from his father’s regime in place and the first three years of his reign ran as smoothly as that of his father with the added benefit that Rome was no longer fighting any wars. On November 27, 176, Aurelius promoted 15-year old Commodus to the rank of Imperator, which some say is a role similar to commander.  The Romans found Commodus' gladiatorial combats to be scandalous and disgraceful. As Edward Gibbon noted in his famous Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, in the intervening years between the death of Domitian and the reign of Commodus, “the vast extent of the Roman empire was governed by absolute power, under the guidance of virtue and wisdom.” The “Five Good Emperors,” ruled efficiently and under them the Roman people enjoyed “a rational freedom.” However, just when the days of the mad emperors seemed long gone, Commodus brought the madness roaring back.  As mentioned above, he ordered many statues to be made showing him dressed as Hercules with a lion's hide and a club. [clarification needed] For each appearance in the arena, he charged the city of Rome a million sesterces, straining the Roman economy. His statues were also torn down. c. bribing the army to support him. In 172 AD, during the Marcomannic War, Commodus was given the victory title Germanicus. "Exsuperatorius" (the supreme) was a title given to Jupiter, and "Amazonius" identified him again with Hercules. He even had the temerity to name the months of the year after himself. As he was physically strong, his chief interest was in sport: he took part in horse racing, chariot racing, and combats with beasts and men, mostly in private but also on occasion in public. On 23 December 176, the two imperatores celebrated a joint triumph, and Commodus was given tribunician power. Papirius Dionysius was executed, too. I mean, he ruled as emperor for 12 years before being assassinated, and he co-ruled with Marcus Aurelius for three years before that. Updated October 06, 2019 Commodus (August 31, 161–December 31, 192 CE) was the emperor of Rome between 180–192 CE. See, D. Fishwick, The Imperial Cult in the Latin West (Leiden, 1987-91), 473. He also declared himself to be an incarnation of the god Hercules and forced the senate to recognize his divinity. Commodus was born on 31 August AD 161 in Lanuvium, near Rome. b. freeing slaves who would support him. At first, events after the emperor’s death went exactly according to plan.  Among his teachers, Onesicrates, Antistius Capella, Titus Aius Sanctus, and Pitholaus are mentioned.. In 186 he further reduced the purity and silver weight to 74 percent and 2.22 grams respectively, being 108 to the Roman pound. During Yo-kai Watch 3 he met and became the partner of Hailey Anne Thomas. After the assassination of Roman Emperor Commodus on December 31, 192 CE, the empire ’s throne was left vacant. Caesar M. Didius Severus Julianus Augustus) 193: Septimius Severus (Imp. 5. At first, they poisoned him, but Commodus managed to vomit up the poison. War broke out in Dacia: few details are available, but it appears two future contenders for the throne, Clodius Albinus and Pescennius Niger, both distinguished themselves in the campaign. (MARCUS AURELIUS COMMODUS ANTONINUS).. Roman Emperor, born 161; died at Rome, 31 December, 192.He was the son of Marcus Aurelius and Anna Faustina, and was the first among the Roman emperors to enjoy the distinction of being born in the purple.. His reign, 180-193, was the turning-point in the greatness of Rome.Some historians have attempted to exonerate Commodus from the charge of … Lucius Aurelius Commodus, born 161 A.D., was appointed co-emperor by his father Marcus Aurelius in 177 A.D. when he was just 16 years old. Publius Domitius Calvisius Tullus Ruso, Imperator Caesar Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus Augustus (177, 191–192), Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus (180–191), Commodus is a minor antagonist in the 2005 video game, dashed lines indicate adoption; dotted lines indicate love affairs/unmarried relationships, G. Alföldy, "Der Friedesschluss des Kaisers Commodus mit den Germanen,", P. A. Brunt, "The Fall of Perennis: Dio-Xiphilinus 79.9.2,", J. Gagé, "La mystique imperiale et l'épreuve des jeux. Updated October 06, 2019. Upon his death, the Senate declared him a public enemy (a de facto damnatio memoriae) and restored the original name of the city of Rome and its institutions.  On 27 November 176, Marcus Aurelius granted Commodus the rank of Imperator and, in the middle of 177, the title Augustus, giving his son the same status as his own and formally sharing power. Reign. He took the throne as regent, but was killed by Maximus in the Colosseum. Anyone who caught the emperor’s attention risked also inadvertently invoking his wrath. Commodus was succeeded by Pertinax, whose reign was short-lived; he would become the first claimant to be usurped during the Year of the Five Emperors. In 180 AD, Marcus Aurelius died, leaving Commodus as sole Emperor of Rome. He was an elderly senator who was chosen by the senate as emperor. Commodus never killed his gladiatorial adversaries, instead accepting their surrenders. The latter died in 169 having failed to recover fr… The executions of the senators had whet his appetite for blood and he devoted himself “to combats of wild beasts and of men.” Not merely content to hunt in private, the emperor began to perform in the Colosseum itself, competing as a gladiator to the delight of the crowds and horror of the senate, as depicted in Gladiator. The latter eventually would be used as a conventional title by Roman emperors, starting about a century later, but Commodus seems to have been the first to assume it..  Popular rumors spread alleging he was actually the son, not of Marcus Aurelius, but of a gladiator whom his mother Faustina had taken as a lover at the coastal resort of Caieta.. Commodus: emperor of the Roman world (r. 180-192). Commodus: The True Story Of The Mad Roman Emperor Immortalized In ‘Gladiator’, Commodus exposes Lucilla’s plot in this scene from, Commodus is confronted by Maximus in the arena in this scene from. Commodus as Hercules. Commodus vollständiger Name wechselte mehrmals; geboren wurde er als Lucius Aurelius Commodus, seit der Erhebung zum Mitkaiser 177 hieß er Imperator Caesar Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus Augustus, bei der Übernahme der Alleinherrschaft im März 180 nahm er den Namen Antoninus und im Oktober desselben Jahres auch das Pränomen seines verstorbenen Vaters Mark Aurel an. Harvard University Press, 1961, 73.10.3, Dio Cassius 73.20.3, Loeb edition translated E. Cary, Gibbon p.. 106 "disgorged at once a hundred lions; a hundred darts". Statues were erected of the emperor depicted as the mythological hero all over the city, including one made of solid gold and weighing in at nearly 1,000 pounds. The provinces had become more urbanized and Romanized, and a host of religions and minorities generally lived in peaceful harmony. Her husband, Pompeianus, was not involved, but two men alleged to have been her lovers, Marcus Ummidius Quadratus Annianus (the consul of 167, who was also her first cousin) and Appius Claudius Quintianus, attempted to murder Commodus as he entered a theater. The principal surviving literary sources are Herodian, Dio Cassius (a contemporary and sometimes first-hand observer, Senator during Commodus' reign, but his reports for this period survive only as fragments and abbreviations), and the Historia Augusta (untrustworthy for its character as a work of literature rather than history, with elements of fiction embedded within its biographies; in the case of Commodus, it may well be embroidering upon what the author found in reasonably good contemporary sources). Yet another attempt on his life had been foiled, but the conspirators did not lose their nerve. Commodus was also known for fighting exotic animals in the arena, often to the horror and disgust of the Roman people. Names: 31 Augustus 161: Lucius Aurelius Commodus; 12 October 166: Lucius Aurelius Commodus Caesar; 172: Lucius Aurelius Commodus Caesar Germanicus; 175: Lucius Aurelius Commodus Caesar Germanicus Sarmaticus; June 177: Imperator Caesar Lucius Aurelius Commodus Augustus; 17 March 180: Marcus Aurelius Commodus … A small group of conspirators, including the emperor’s chamberlain and mistress, Marcia, decided to kill him. In 187, one of the leaders of the deserters, Maternus, came from Gaul intending to assassinate Commodus at the Festival of the Great Goddess in March, but he was betrayed and executed. In the view of Dio Cassius, his accession marked the descent "from a kingdom of gold to one of iron and rust".. Commodus was the first (and until 337, the only) emperor "born in the purple," meaning during his father's reign. Cleander proceeded to concentrate power in his own hands and to enrich himself by becoming responsible for all public offices: he sold and bestowed entry to the Senate, army commands, governorships and, increasingly, even the suffect consulships to the highest bidder. Commodus rises to power as Rome's new emperor, but not everyone supports his ascent. Unlike the preceding Emperors Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius, he seems to have had little interest in the business of administration and tended throughout his reign to leave the practical running of the state to a succession of favourites, beginning with Saoterus, a freedman from Nicomedia who had become his chamberlain. As the son of emperor Marcus Aurelius, Commodus was the first Roman emperor to have been "born in the purple," and thus dynastically selected to be his successor. He was made the youngest consul in Roman history in 177 and elevated to co-augustus with his father, having been given the title imperator in 176. This is just a curiosity thing for me. He accompanied his father, Marcus, during the Marcomannic Wars in 172 and on a tour of the Eastern provinces in 176. Commodus was the son of the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius.He was the brother of Princess Lucilla, and uncle of Lucius.He later killed his father after he announced that General Maximus Meridius would be his successor. Had Commodus been emperor from AD 177, no-one doubted that true power remained in the hands of his father. He was succeeded by Pertinax, the first emperor in the tumultuous Year of the Five Emperors. Lucius Aurelius Commodus was born to the philosopher/king and Faustina the Younger at Lanuvium, a city fourteen miles southeast of Rome on August 31, 161 CE. He thought of himself as the reincarnation of Hercules, frequently emulating the legendary hero's feats by appearing in the arena to fight a variety of wild animals. And in AD 177, after the revolt of Cassius, Marcus Aurelius made him Augustus and thereby joint emperor. , Thus, he presented himself as the fountainhead of the Empire, Roman life, and religion. Caesar Augustus) 27 BC-AD 14. The Senate announced Commodus a ‘public enemy’ and righted the names the conceited emperor had altered after himself. But once Marcus Aurelius died in 180 A.D. (of natural causes, not at his son’s own hand, as depicted in Gladiator), Commodus hastily made peace with the tribes so he could return to Rome “to enjoy the pleasure of the capital with the servile and profligate youths whom Marcus had banished, but who soon regained their station and influence about the emperor.”, Despite his unusual personal tastes, Commodus at first behaved more like a typical spoiled, rich youth than a bloody dictator. His reign is commonly considered to mark the end of the golden period of peace in the history of the Roman Empire known as the Pax Romana. The economy was generally buoyant, and long-distance trade flourished. – Historia Augusta Bd. Perhaps seeing this as an opportunity, early in 192 Commodus, declaring himself the new Romulus, ritually re-founded Rome, renaming the city Colonia Lucia Annia Commodiana. Commodus (Latin: Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus;  31 August 161 – 31 December 192), was Roman Emperor from 180 to 192. Julia Balbilla a possible lover of Sabina: A. R. Birley (1997). The first, Sextus Tigidius Perennis, Commodus put to death after becoming convinced he was conspiring against him. Commodus was the first Emperor born into the ‘purple’. Early in 188, Cleander disposed of the current praetorian prefect, Atilius Aebutianus, and took over supreme command of the Praetorian Guard at the new rank of a pugione ("dagger-bearer"), with two praetorian prefects subordinate to him. The Colosseum, Rome. After serving in battle on the northern frontier in 178 and 179, together with Aurelius, Commodus returned to Rome in 180 after his father’s death. Commodus was succeeded by Pertinax, whose reign was short-lived; he would become the first claimant to be usurped during the Year of the Five Emperors. He was left-handed and very proud of the fact. The new emperor made a treaty with the German tribe of Marcomanni, his father's enemies. Commodus in 180 AD. During his reign he self-identified with Hercules and wanted to appear god-like to the people of Rome. It seems likely that he was brought up in an atmosphere of Stoic asceticism, which he rejected entirely upon his accession to sole rule. The Emperor Commodus Leaving the Arena at the Head of the Gladiators (detail) by Edwin Howland Blashfield (1848–1936), Hermitage Museum and Gardens, Norfolk, Virginia. But yeah, Commodus is the turning point for the major crisis period that almost destroyed the empire. Despite his education, he did not inherit any of his father’s work. Emperor. “So superlatively mad had the abandoned wretch become” that he renamed Rome Colonia Commodiana (the Colony of Commodus) and changed the names of the months to each reflect one of the many epithets he had bestowed upon himself. His reign was nothing like his predecessors in bloodletting, at least in Rome.  Later, he decapitated a running ostrich with a specially designed dart and afterwards carried his sword and the bleeding head of the dead bird over to the Senators' seating area and motioned as though they were next. He was supreme commander of Rome's armies and personal commander of the VI Legion. Salvius and Paternus were executed along with a number of other prominent consulars and senators. fascinating facts from the entirety of ancient history. In one final act of madness, Commodus ordered the head of the Colossus of Nero to be replaced with his own and added the inscription “the only left-handed fighter to conquer twelve times (as I recall the number) one thousand men.”. Commodus was one of a set of twins that Faustina gave birth to, being the one to survive. One would be the growing in size and power of the Eurasian steppe dwellers like the Huns. Gibbon, Edward. Now at the zenith of his power, Cleander continued to sell public offices as his private business. Petrinax was acclaimed Emperor but he was later deposed, and this led to a series of civil wars that only ended with the rise of Septimius Severus. After the death of Commodus, Pertinax became emperor. Wife of M. Annius Verus: Giacosa (1977), p. 10. The prince of Rome, Commodus is the son of Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Whatever its roots, the conspiracy failed and the incident aroused an insane paranoia in Commodus, who began seeing plots and treachery everywhere. His recorded actions do tend to show a rejection of his father's policies, his father's advisers, and especially his father's austere lifestyle, and an alienation from the surviving members of his family. Commodus's sister ruled briefly after Commodus was killed by Maximus. Caesar Augustus) AD 14-37. Commodus was an emperor that spent too much money on Gladitoral Games. As a result, Commodus appeared even more rarely in public, preferring to live on his estates. Speidel, "Commodus the God-Emperor and the Army,", This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 00:00. Fight for Glory Commodus became co-ruler with his … The Emperor Commodus (reigned 180-192) liked fighting in the arena like a gladiator. He was portrayed by Joaquin Phoenix, who would later portray Arthur Fleck in Joker. Die ''Terme Taurine'' von Civitavecchia – ein römisches Heilbad. Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus, or just Commodus for short, is the main antagonist of the 2000 historic action film Gladiator. Herodian's Roman History F.L. Commodus didn’t really bother with the duties of being an … He subsequently married Bruttia Crispina before accompanying his father to the Danubian front once more in 178. Other victims at this time were the praetorian prefect Julius Julianus, Commodus' cousin Annia Fundania Faustina, and his brother-in-law Mamertinus. Jay. At 29, he took over more of the reins of power, though he continued to rule through a cabal consisting of Marcia, his new chamberlain Eclectus, and the new praetorian prefect Quintus Aemilius Laetus. Historia Augusta. After Maximus killed Commodus in the Colloseum, the emperor was chosen from the winner of a gladiator fight between two emperor wannabes. 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