The fall of the city removed what was once a powerful defense for Christian Europe against Muslim invasion, allowing for uninterrupted Ottoman expansion into eastern Europe. Thus the tomb was left in peace, and even became a site of veneration by the Byzantines, who prayed there in times of drought. Two attempts to rush the Gate of St. Romanus and the Blachernae walls were met with fierce resistance, and the Ottoman soldiers were forced to fall back. , Finally, in autumn 677 or early 678 Constantine IV resolved to confront the Arab besiegers in a head-on engagement. Eyewitness Jacopo Tedaldi estimates a presence of 30,000 to 35,000 armed civilians and only 6,000 to 7,000 trained soldiers. He also began to view himself as Kayser-i Rûm (“Caesar of Rome”), the inheritor of the Roman Empire and all its historical lands. As long as it remains (a museum) it means the crusaders' occupation remains." These were drawn out until 679, giving the Arabs time for a last raid into Asia Minor under 'Amr ibn Murra, perhaps intended to put pressure on the Byzantines. Hungary refused to assist, and, instead of sending men, Pope Nicholas V saw the precarious situation as an opportunity to push for the reunification of the Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches, a priority of the papacy since 1054. Having encircled Constantinople in full, Mehmed continued his artillery barrage of the land walls through May 29. He also began the construction of the Boğazkesen (later called the Rumelihisarı), a fortress at the narrowest point of the Bosporus, in order to restrict passage between the Black and Mediterranean seas. Then the Arabs departed and made for Cyzicus, which they captured and converted into a fortified camp to spend the winter. On its way back to Syria, the Arab fleet was almost annihilated in a storm off Syllaion. The Testimony of an Ex-Muslim from Iran - My Journey to the Prince of Peace - Duration: 1:28:04. Constantinople had also been weakened economically. For a while Sultan Mehmet actually tried to call himself the Roman Emperor but no one really bought into it. What drives Muslim animus for Israel: brotherly love for “oppressed” Palestinians or religious hatred for “infidel” Jews? Mehmed repopulated the city with people from a multitude of backgrounds and faiths and relocated his capital from Edirne to Constantinople, ensuring a multicultural seat of power for a multicultural empire. The early Muslim conquests (Arabic: الفتوحات الإسلامية , al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya), also referred to as the Arab conquests and the early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century. Unlike the latter, which, from a Muslim point of view, was first and foremost a campaign dedicated to rapine and plunder, not conquest — evinced by the fact that, after the initial battle, the Muslims fled — the siege of Constantinople was devoted to a longtime goal, had the full backing of the caliphate, and consisted of far greater manpower. An adjoining sea wall ran along the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara, the latter section being 20 feet (6 metres) high and 5 miles (8 km) long. , The narrative of the siege accepted by modern historians relies largely on Theophanes' account, while the Arab and Syriac sources do not mention any siege, but rather individual campaigns, only a few of which reached as far as Constantinople. This was a far cry from previous centuries. The Ar… By the mid-15th century, constant struggles for dominance with its Balkan neighbours and Roman Catholic rivals had diminished Byzantine imperial holdings to Constantinople and the land immediately west of it.  The Chinese histories then explain that the Arabs forced the Byzantines to pay tribute afterwards as part of a peace settlement. In 1452 he reached peace treaties with Hungary and Venice.  The peace lasted until Constantine IV's son and successor, Justinian II (r. 685–695, 705–711), broke it in 693, with devastating consequences: the Byzantines were defeated, Justinian was deposed and a twenty-year period of anarchy followed. Its failure had similarly important repercussions, and represented a major blow to the Caliph's prestige. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The Ottoman besiegers vastly outnumbered the Byzantines and their allies. According to Muslim tradition, Constantine IV threatened to destroy his tomb, but the Caliph warned that if he did so, the Christians under Muslim rule would suffer. It had only a fraction of the population of centuries before. The tomb was "rediscovered" after the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453 by the dervish Sheikh Ak Shams al-Din, and Sultan Mehmed II (r. 1444–1446, 1451–1481) ordered the construction of a marble tomb and a mosque adjacent to it. The Second Arab Siege of Constantinople in 717–718 was a combined land and sea offensive by the Muslim Arabs of the Umayyad Caliphate against the capital city of the Byzantine Empire, Constantinople. Under the Umayyads the continuing conquest of North Africa (665), the second Arab siege of Constantinople (717-718) and the conquest of Tbilisi (736). This set the pattern that continued throughout the siege: each spring, the Arabs crossed the Marmara and assaulted Constantinople, withdrawing to Cyzicus for the winter. Ignorance is bliss, but more so among jihadists with a pen, not necessarily an automatic rifle. A massive artillery bombardment of Constantinople's triple wall was engineered by mercenaries from the West – a task taking several hundred oxen to move the cannon and about a hundred men working together to load and fire. Mu'awiya dispatched another army, led by his son (and future Caliph) Yazid, to Fadhala's aid. No … A small group reached the top of a tower through another gate but were nearly eliminated by the defenders until Giustiniani was mortally wounded by Ottoman gunfire while on the ramparts. Hungary was the primary European threat to the Ottomans on land, and Venice and Genoa controlled much of the Aegean and Black seas. Vast open fields constituted much of the land within the walls. The preparations for this conquest started at the time of the khalifah … It became a tradition that Ottoman sultans were girt with the Sword of Osman at the Eyüp mosque upon their accession. These land expeditions were sometimes coupled with naval raids against the coasts of southern Asia Minor. At about the same time, the Muslim army in Asia Minor, under the command of Sufyan ibn 'Awf, was defeated by the Byzantine army under the generals Phloros, Petron and Cyprian, losing 30,000 men according to Theophanes. Mu'a… The Muslim conquest of the Maghreb (Arabic: الفَتْحُ الإسْلَامِيُّ لِلمَغْرِبِ ) continued the century of rapid Muslim conquests following the death of Muhammad in 632 and into the Byzantine-controlled territories of Northern Africa. A recent incident in Jerusalem goes a long way in answering this question. – 1643 C.E. Mehmed was 21 years old at the time, and Istanbul has remained in Muslim hands ever since. The Caliphate's division during this Second Muslim Civil War allowed Byzantium to achieve not only peace, but also a position of predominance on its eastern frontier. Now devoid of both a long-standing buffer against the Ottomans and access to the Black Sea, Christian kingdoms relied on Hungary to halt any further westward expansion. He turned the largest Christian city in the world into the largest Muslim city in the world. , The peace lasted until the end of the Muslim civil war in 661, from which Mu'awiya and his clan emerged victorious, establishing the Umayyad Caliphate. Following the disastrous Battle of Yarmouk in 636, the Byzantine Empire withdrew the bulk of its remaining forces from the Levant into Asia Minor, which was shielded from the Muslim expansion by the Taurus Mountains. Constantinople in 1453 was a heavily declined city state. Thus the capture of an island named Arwad "in the sea of Kustantiniyya" is recorded for 673/674, although it is unclear if this refers to the Sea of Marmara or the Aegean, and Yazid's 676 expedition is also said to have reached Constantinople. Following the disastrous Battle of Yarmouk in 636, the Byzantine Empire withdrew the bulk of its remaining forces from the Levant into Asia Minor, which was shielded from the Muslim expansion by the Taurus Mountains. , The details of the clashes around Constantinople are unclear, as Theophanes condenses the siege in his account of the first year, and the Arab chroniclers do not mention the siege at all but merely provide the names of leaders of unspecified expeditions into Byzantine territory. The sultan thus completed his conquest of the Byzantine capital. Faced with this new threat, and after the immense losses suffered against the Byzantines, Mu'awiya began negotiations for a truce, with embassies exchanged between the two courts. The commander in chief, Mehmed…. The Byzantines also defeated the Arab land army in Asia Minor, forcing them to lift the siege. Just before dawn, the sultan launched a coordinated artillery, infantry, and naval assault on Constantinople. The conquest of Constantinople and the fall of the Byzantine Empire was a key event of the Late Middle Ages and is sometimes considered the end of the Medieval period. They mounted a frontal assault of the land walls on April 7, but the Byzantines repelled them and were able to repair the defenses. In 1453 the Turkish Ottoman Empire captured the city of Constantinople. , At the same time, the preoccupation with the Arab threat had reduced Byzantium's ability to respond to threats elsewhere: in Italy, the Lombards used the opportunity to conquer most of Calabria, including Tarentum and Brundisium, while in the Balkans, a coalition of Slavic tribes attacked the city of Thessalonica and launched seaborne raids in the Aegean, even penetrating into the Sea of Marmara. The Ottoman galleys were too short to capture the tall European warships, and, with the help of the Golden Horn fleet, the warships safely sailed past the chain. When combined with a large metal chain that had been drawn across the Golden Horn, Constantine was confident that the city’s defenses could repel a naval assault and withstand Mehmed’s land forces until relief came from Christian Europe. The Eastern Roman Empire was under constant Ottoman pressure ever since the new conquerors appeared in the Anatolia. The conquest of Istanbul [Constantinople] and the conversion of the Hagia Sophia [Greek for "Holy Wisdom"] into a mosque are among the most glorious chapters of Turkish history.  The undertaking followed a careful, phased approach: first the Muslims had to secure strongpoints and bases along the coast, and then, with Cyzicus as a base, Constantinople would be blockaded by land and sea and cut off from the agrarian hinterland that supplied its food. In the 15th century, Constantinople’s walls were widely recognized as the most formidable in all of Europe. The Byzantine chronicler Theophanes the Confessor reports that the Arabs remained before Chalcedon for a while before returning to Syria, and that on their way they captured and garrisoned Amorium. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. In 716, after years of preparations, the Arabs, led by Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik, invaded Byzantine Asia Minor. Hizb al-Tahrir—the “Liberation Party”—held a large, outdoor event near al-Aqsa mosque to commemorate the anniversary of the Islamic conquest of Constantinople (May 29, 1453). Rumeli Fortress (Rumeli Hisarı) on the European bank of the Bosporus, Istanbul. Byzantium) was besieged by the Da shi (大食, i.e. Howard-Johnston asserts that no siege actually took place, based not only on its absence in the eastern sources, but also on the logistical impossibility of such an undertaking for the duration reported. He hoped to breach them or otherwise force a surrender before a Christian relief force could arrive. ", "The Arabs in Asia Minor (641–750), from Arabic Sources", "Les expéditions des Arabes contre Constantinople dans l'histoire et dans la légende", "Two Arabian sieges of Constantinople (674–678; 717/718)", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Siege_of_Constantinople_(674–678)&oldid=971695839, Naval battles involving the Byzantine Empire, Naval battles involving the Umayyad Caliphate, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 August 2020, at 17:30. Sultan Mehmed II transformed Hagia Sophia into an mosque, and the few partisans of the union fled to Italy.…, The fall of Constantinople in 1453 provided humanism with a major boost, for many eastern scholars fled to Italy, bringing with them important books and manuscripts and a tradition of Greek scholarship.…, …the enterprise and during the siege of Constantinople (April 6–May 29, 1453), the opposing views were voiced in two war councils convened at critical moments. However, on May 29, 1453, Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks. Muslim raids against the Cilician frontier zone and deep into Asia Minor began as early as 640, and continued under Mu'awiya, then governor of the Levant. Although it had lost all of its territories, the city still commanded great respect as the seat of the Byzantine Empire. He is expected to graduate from the University of Chicago in 2021 with bachelor’s degrees in English language and literature and political... Map showing the expansion of the Ottoman Empire (c. 1300–1700). The land walls spanned 4 miles (6.5 km) and consisted of a double line of ramparts with a moat on the outside; the higher of the two stood as high as 40 feet (12 metres) with a base as much as 16 feet (5 metres) thick. The First Arab Siege of Constantinople in 674–678 was a major conflict of the Arab–Byzantine wars, and the first culmination of the Umayyad Caliphate's expansionist strategy towards the Byzantine Empire, led by Caliph Mu'awiya I. Mu'awiya, who had emerged in 661 as the ruler of the Muslim Arab empire following a civil war, renewed aggressive warfare against Byzantium after a lapse of some years and hoped to deliver a lethal blow by capturing the Byzantine capital, Constantinople. The Arab troops under Fadhala ibn 'Ubayd arrived too late to assist Saborios, who had died after falling from his horse, and they spent the winter in the Hexapolis around Melitene awaiting reinforcements. https://www.britannica.com/event/Fall-of-Constantinople-1453. By March 1453 Urban’s cannon had been transported from the Ottoman capital of Edirne to the outskirts of Constantinople.  Throughout this period, overland raids into Asia Minor continued, and the Arab troops wintered on Byzantine soil. Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) as saying: The Last Hour would not come until the Romans would land at al-A'maq or in Dabiq.  Thus from the Arab sources it is only known that Abdallah ibn Qays and Fadhala ibn 'Ubayd raided Crete and wintered there in 675, while in the same year Malik ibn Abdallah led a raid into Asia Minor. Many modern scholars also agree that the exodus of Greeks to Italy as a result of this event marked the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Renaissance. Arab sources on the other hand report that the Muslims crossed over into Europe and launched an unsuccessful attack on Constantinople itself, before returning to Syria. Baltaoğlu Süleyman Bey commanded a fleet stationed at Diplokionion with an estimated 31 large and midsize warships alongside nearly 100 smaller boats and transports. This was found in the peninsula of Cyzicus on the southern shore of the Sea of Marmara, where a raiding fleet under Fadhala ibn 'Ubayd wintered in 670 or 671. On April 12 the sultan dispatched a contingent of troops to subdue two nearby Byzantine forts and ordered Baltaoğlu to rush the chain. They used the peninsula of Cyzicus near the city as a base to spend the winter, and returned every spring to launch attacks against the city's fortifications. The Exarchate of Africa was a division of the Byzantine Empire centered around Carthage, Tunisia, which encompassed its possessions on the Western Mediterranean.Ruled by an exarch (viceroy) it was established by the Emperor Maurice in the late 580s and survived until the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb in the late 7th century.  In 668, the Arabs sent aid to Saborios, strategos of the Armeniac Theme, who had rebelled and proclaimed himself emperor. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. These walls had never been breached in the thousand years since their construction. The country was governed by the East Roman civil service and military, both of which were filled by the Greek-speaking ruling class to the general exclusion of the native Coptic-speaking Egyptians. Fortunate will be the leader and fortunate will be the army that accomplishes this.” For eight centuries, the conquest of Constantinople remained a dream for the Muslims. The siege left several traces in the legends of the nascent Muslim world, although it is conflated with accounts of another expedition against the city a few years previously, led by the future Caliph Yazid I. Now sultan for the second time, Mehmed II intended to complete his father’s mission and conquer Constantinople for the Ottomans. However, he returned to power two years later after defeating the Christians and remained sultan until his death in 1451. The campaign marked the culmination of twenty years of attacks and progressive Arab occupation of the Byzantine borderlands, while Byzantine strength was sapped by prolonged internal turmoil. In contrast to Yazid's expedition, Mu'awiya intended to take a coastal route to Constantinople. The latter, midway between Syria and Constantinople, was converted into a forward supply base and centre for Muslim naval raids. Preparation for the conquest of Constantinople (Istanbul today) started in 1452. Zaganos vehemently rejected the proposal to raise the siege. He was given the task of preparing the last great assault. Under the Rashidun there were the conquests of Syria (637), Armenia (639), Egypt (639) and North Africa (652).  From the next year, Muslim attacks recommenced, with pressure mounting as Muslim armies began wintering on Byzantine soil west of the Taurus range, maximizing the disruption caused to the Byzantine economy. There, […] In the Muslim world, after the death of Mu'awiya in 680, the various forces of opposition within the Caliphate manifested themselves.  In 673, another Arab fleet, under Gunada ibn Abu Umayya, captured Tarsus in Cilicia, as well as Rhodes. When most of Constantinople was secure, Mehmed himself rode through the streets of the city to the great cathedral of Hagia Sophia, the largest in all of Christendom, and converted it into the mosque Ayasofya. The Arab conquests: 7th century: One of the most dramatic and sudden movements of any people in history is the expansion, by conquest, of the Arabs in the 7th century (only the example of the Mongols in the 13th century can match it). Locally, the Romans ruled Egypt from the capital of Alexandria, and from the ancient Egyptian capital of Memphis, with its great bulwark, the fortress of Babylon, on the eastern bank of the Nile. In contrast to the Byzantines, the Ottoman Turks had extended their control over virtually all of the Balkans and most of Anatolia, having conquered several Byzantine cities west of Constantinople in the latter half of the 14th century. It is probable that the death of admiral Yazid ibn Shagara, reported by Arab chroniclers for 677/678, is related to this defeat. The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) prophesied that Muslims would one day conquer Constantinople. 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