some reserves in Kenya. google_color_bg = "ffffff"; This greeting is usually performed among harem or territorial males or among bachelor males playing. Countries which lie above the grey line have a greater birth than death rate meaning the total population is increasing; those below the line have a declining population. Social grooming strengthens social bonds in plains and mountain zebras. [89] By contrast, plains zebra stallions are generally intolerant of foals that are not theirs and may practice infanticide and feticide via violence to the pregnant mare. Intl. It experienced a significant decline in the Mountain zebras number near 35,000 individuals and their population appears to be increasing. [88], Zebra species have two basic social structures. [117] The Cape mountain zebra, a subspecies of mountain zebra, was driven to near extinction by hunting and habitat loss with less than 50 individuals by the 1950s. Be the first to answer! They are preyed on mainly by lions and typically flee when threatened but also bite and kick. Poaching of Grevy's zebra is no longer a threat, due to protection under CITES. [40], As with all wild equines, zebra have barrel-chested bodies with tufted tails, elongated faces and long necks with long, erect manes. Baby pairs are common. [105] In 1882, Ethiopia sent a zebra to French president Jules Grévy, and the species it belonged to was named in his honour. The belly and legs are white when unstriped, but the muzzle is dark and the skin underneath the coat is uniformly black. They regularly rub against trees, rocks, and other objects and roll around in dust for protection against flies and irritation. It lives in arid, open bushed It range. Birth Rate: A mare usually bears 1 young at a time. The death rate was higher than the birth rate, and the immigration rate was equal to the emigration rate. Many facts including growth rate, habitat, time of year, diet, and gender determine how big a bear will grow. Contact Us.. 1992: Extinct. This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 21:47. During the day, they sleep standing up, while at night they lie down. Soon after birth, foals are able to stand up and walk. 2004, IUCN/SSC Eq. Only unhealthy stallions have their harems taken over, and even then, the new stallion gradually takes over, pushing the old one out without a fight. This causes immigration of zebra from other herds and creates further growth in the population. days. [28] In Grévy's zebras, mothers may gather into small groups and leave their young in "kindergartens" guarded by a territorial male while searching for water. 2005) as well as the Horn of Africa Deserts Global 200 Ecoregion. Zebras inhabit eastern and southern Africa and can be found in a variety of habitats such as savannahs, grasslands, woodlands, shrublands and mountainous areas. The quagga was probably vulnerable to extinction due to its limited distribution, and it may have competed with domestic livestock for forage. Rates of birth, mortality, and age at first conception were assumed to be the sum of density‐independent factors (excluding rainfall), and rainfall‐dependent factors (after Owen‐Smith 2000). the largest that have been found in any ungulate Young are generally weaned at about 8 - 13 A two sex, age-structured model (Dobson and Lyles, 1989) was used to forecast yearly birth rates and population sizes of zebras.All females 4 year old or greater were assumed to be reproductive and 3-year-old females were assumed to be capable of reproducing depending upon population density ().Age-specific survival rates and fecundity were estimated from “Sight–Resight” data. This in turn led to a decrease in per capita birth rate, a limitation in population growth as a function of population density. (van Dierendonck & de Vries 12 to 13 years. It is caused by several different types of non-motile bacteria found in water. E. zebra. The average May–October growth rate of newly recruited individuals, based on a von Bertalanffy growth model fitted to monthly shell-length composition data, was 0.11 mm/d. established territories are the focal points. Zebras have become staples in children's stories and wildlife-themed art, such as depictions of Noah's Ark. [45] During embryonic development, the stripes appear at eight months, but the patterns may be determined at three to five weeks. [13][20][21], The cladogram of Equus below is based on Vilstrup and colleagues (2013):[13] They also compete with livestock for food and water and fencing blocks their migration routes. The skins were traded or used locally. of Africa Biodiversity [83] Nile crocodiles also prey on zebras when they near water. Their dentition is adapted for grazing; they have large incisors that clip grass blades and highly crowned, ridged molars well suited for grinding. Answer. The exotic zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771) was first discovered in North America in 1988 in Lake St Clair of the Great Lakes Basin (Hebert, Muncaster & Mackie, 1989). The function of stripes in zebras has been discussed among biologists since at least the 19th century. These animals would eventually be given by the Dutch to the Tokugawa Shogunate of Japan. [8][28] The plains zebra is a pioneer grazer, mowing down the upper, less nutritious grass canopy and preparing the way for more specialised grazers, which depend on shorter and more nutritious grasses below. [8] The plains zebra and mountain zebra were traditionally placed in the subgenus Hippotigris (C. H. Smith, 1841) in contrast to the Grévy's zebra which was considered the sole species of subgenus Dolichohippus (Heller, 1912). google_ad_format = "728x90_as"; [85] The zebra can reach a speed of 68.4 km/h (42.5 mph) compared to 57.6 km/h (35.8 mph) for the lion, but maximum acceleration is respectively 18 km/h (11 mph) and 34.2 km/h (21.3 mph). [42], Young or foals are born with brown and white coats, and the brown darkens with age. Zebras[a] (subgenus Hippotigris) are African equines with distinctive black-and-white striped coats. The unusual-looking foal was discovered alongside its … However growth will not be sustained for ever and resources will start to drain. Usually August or September, but mating and births can occur all during the year. The sole natural factor limiting the mouse population in the home is the limitation of resources such as food. Similar to humans, Female gorillas give birth to 1 offspring per delivery, and rarely produce twins. In addition, females in oestrous will stand with their hind legs spread and raise their tails when in the presence of a male. ", "Lessons for conservation management: Monitoring temporal changes in genetic diversity of Cape mountain zebra (, "The status of Namibia's Hartmann's zebra", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Zebra&oldid=991987241, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Modern range of the three living zebra species. [33] Fossil skulls of E. mauritanicus from Algeria which date to around 1 mya appears to show affinities with the plains zebra. [98] The film Racing Stripes features a captive zebra ostracised from the horses and ending up being ridden by a rebellious girl. Members of a harem nip and scrape along the neck, withers, and back with their teeth and lips. [118], Zebras can be found in numerous protected areas. [23] Within a few weeks, foals attempt to graze, but may continue to nurse for eight to thirteen months. Their elongated, slender legs end in a single spade-shaped toe covered in a hard hoof. "Early birth linked to greater risk of hospital visits during childhood: Findings indicate that gestational age at birth is a strong predictor of ill health throughout childhood." [15][16] Molecular evidence supports zebras as a monophyletic lineage. The fourth Mughal emperor Jahangir received a zebra via Ethiopia in 1620 and commissioned a painting of the animal, which was completed by Ustad Mansur. In captivity lions often breed every year, but in the wild they usually breed no more than once in two years. .mw-parser-output table.clade{border-spacing:0;margin:0;font-size:100%;line-height:100%;border-collapse:separate;width:auto}.mw-parser-output table.clade table.clade{width:100%;line-height:inherit}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-label{width:0.7em;padding:0 0.15em;vertical-align:bottom;text-align:center;border-left:1px solid;border-bottom:1px solid;white-space:nowrap}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-fixed-width{overflow:hidden;text-overflow:ellipsis}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-fixed-width:hover{overflow:visible}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-label.first{border-left:none;border-right:none}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-label.reverse{border-left:none;border-right:1px solid}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-slabel{padding:0 0.15em;vertical-align:top;text-align:center;border-left:1px solid;white-space:nowrap}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-slabel:hover{overflow:visible}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-slabel.last{border-left:none;border-right:none}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-slabel.reverse{border-left:none;border-right:1px solid}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-bar{vertical-align:middle;text-align:left;padding:0 0.5em;position:relative}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-bar.reverse{text-align:right;position:relative}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leaf{border:0;padding:0;text-align:left}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leafR{border:0;padding:0;text-align:right}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leaf.reverse{text-align:right}.mw-parser-output table.clade:hover span.linkA{background-color:yellow}.mw-parser-output table.clade:hover span.linkB{background-color:green}, In addition to the three extant species, some fossil zebras have also been identified. An easy way to measure the growth or decline of a population is to examine birth and death rates over time. Databank 2004). [111][119], The Quagga Project An organisation that selectively breeds zebras to recreate the hair coat pattern of the quagga, Black and white striped animals in the horse family, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, International Union for Conservation of Nature, State Museum of Natural History Karlsruhe, "Mitochondrial phylogenomics of modern and ancient equids", "A rapid loss of stripes: The evolutionary history of the extinct quagga", "Mitochondrial‐DNA timetable and the evolution of, "Mitochondrial DNA evolution in the genus, Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa, "Pliocene and Pleistocene equids: palaeontology versus molecular biology", "The Equidae from Cooper's D, an early Pleistocene fossil locality in Gauteng, South Africa", "Complete mitochondrial genome of an extinct, "Hold Your Zorses: The sad truth about animal hybrids", "Extremely Rare 'Blonde' Zebra Photographed", Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, "Benefits of zebra stripes: behaviour of tabanid flies around zebras and horses", "How the zebra got its stripes: a problem with too many solutions", "Experimental evidence that stripes do not cool zebras", "Polarotactic tabanids find striped patterns with brightness and/or polarization modulation least attractive: an advantage of zebra stripes", "Cows painted with zebra-like striping can avoid biting fly attack", "Striped bodypainting protects against horseflies", "A newly discovered wildlife migration in Namibia and Botswana is the longest in Africa", "Memory, not just perception, plays an important role in terrestrial mammalian migration", "Biomechanics of predator–prey arms race in lion, zebra, cheetah and impala", "Sperm competition and variation in zebra mating behavior". These groups have their own home ranges, which overlap, and they tend to be nomadic. [78] Plains zebras are more water-dependent and live in more mesic environments than other species. In 1261, Sultan Baibars of Egypt established an embassy with Alfonso X of Castile and sent a zebra and other exotic animals as gifts. On average, zebra mussels live 2-5 years and can reproduce by their second year. The population quickly starts to grow and resources are still plentiful. They are depicted in rock art in Southern Africa dating from 28,000 to 20,000 years ago, though not as commonly as antelope species like eland. Map #2 Plains zebra groups also live in a fission–fusion society. [77] When migrating, they appear to rely on some memory of the locations where foraging conditions were best and may predict conditions months after their arrival. Zebras also communicate with visual displays, and the flexibility of their lips allows them to make complex facial expressions. [3][4], The word "zebra" was traditionally pronounced with a long initial vowel, but over the course of the 20th century the pronunciation with the short initial vowel became the norm in the UK and the Commonwealth. Gestation and Birth. [7], Zebras are classified in the genus Equus (known as equines) along with horses and asses. Historically, they have been highly sought after by exotic animal collectors, but unlike horses and donkeys, zebras have never been truly domesticated. The female Grevy's zebra weighs 350 - 400 kg (avg 385 kg) (770 - 880 lb (avg 847 lb)); The quagga, a type of plains zebra, was driven to extinction in the 19th century. grassland growing on deep sand, hard-pans, sumplands and in areas where fire and elephants [28], Zebras eat primarily grasses and sedges but may also consume bark, leaves, buds, fruits, and roots if their favoured foods are scarce. Males assess the female's reproductive state with a curled lip and bared teeth (flehmen response) and the female will solicit mating by backing in. Harems travel in a consistent filing order with the high-ranking mares and their offspring leading the groups followed by the next-highest ranking mare and her offspring, and so on. Zebras may spend 60–80% of their time feeding, depending on the availability and quality of vegetation. distances within 45 minutes of birth. [92], In plains and mountain zebras, foals are cared for mostly by their mothers, but if threatened by pack-hunting hyenas and dogs, the entire group works together to protect all the young. 2004) Poaching of Grevy's zebra skins for use in fashion was a major problem during the The last sighting was in 1973. [95], Zebras have been featured in African art and culture for millennia. Mares may wander through several territories but remain in one when they have young. (240 to 372 kg), according to the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology.Plains zebras are 3.6 t… Both the birth and death rate are given per 1,000 people of the country's population. mauritanicus sq km (4000 sq mi) (Duncan 1992). Indigenous Population There is no definitive account of the population of North America, and specifically Canada, prior to the arrival of Europeans. There are three extant species: the Grévy's zebra (Equus grevyi), plains zebra (E. quagga) and the mountain zebra (E. zebra). Zebroids are usually infertile and may suffer from dwarfism. 2005, Duncan 1992, Eliot 1993, Huffman Plains zebras have been recorded travelling 500 km (310 mi) between Namibia and Botswana, the longest land migration of mammals in Africa. It … males weigh 380 - 450 kg (avg 430 kg) (836 - 990 lb (avg 950 lb)). Info. [28] Plains and mountain zebras strengthen their social bonds with grooming. Females associate in nursing groups, males in [8][91] Oestrus in female zebras lasts five to ten days; physical signs include frequent urination, flowing mucus, and swollen, everted (inside out) labia. AZA 1994, Burton Equiferus appears to have entered into Portuguese as ezebro or zebro, which was originally a name for a mysterious (possibly feral) equine in the wilds of the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages. The annual density of zebra mussels in Pool 8 of the UMR increased from 3.5/m 2 in 1992 to 14,956/m 2 in 1996. google_ad_type = "text"; The San people associated zebra stripes with water, rain and lighting because of its dazzling pattern, and water spirits were conceived of having zebra stripes. [101] Zebras have lent themselves to products and advertisements, notably for 'Zebra Grate Polish' cleaning supplies by British manufacturer Reckitt and Sons and Japanese pen manufacturer Zebra Co., Ltd..[102], Zebras have been kept in captivity since at least the Roman Empire. An increased birth rate will result in population growth, which can lead to the overpopulation of a species if such growth exceeds the resources within a particular geographic area. Animal [79] Mountain zebra bachelor groups may also include young females that have recently left their natal group, as well as old males they have lost their harems. For people of the African diaspora, the zebra represented the politics of race and identity, being both black and white. The Maasai proverb "a man without culture is like a zebra without stripes" has become popular in Africa and beyond. Grasses make up about 70% of the Grevy's zebra's diet. [9][10][11] Groves and Bell (2004) placed all three species in the subgenus Hippotigris. Young of both sexes leave their natal groups as they mature; females are usually herded by outside males to be included as permanent members of their harems. They seldom wander 10–12 km (6.2–7.5 mi) from a water source. In fact, after only 15 minutes, the foal can walk and after one hour, it will be able to run. 0 1 2. [28] In harem-holding species, oestrus in a female becomes less noticeable to outside males as she gets older, hence competition for older females is virtually nonexistent. *** The Grevy's zebra is the largest of the wild equids. Males have spade-shaped canines, which can be used as weapons in fighting. This is the result of them spending large amounts of time attending to their personal grooming. It is now restricted to Ethiopia and Kenya, and possibly Sudan. [80][23] Mountain zebras can be found at elevations of up to 2,000 m (6,600 ft). [6] A group of zebras is referred to as a herd, dazzle, or zeal. Darwin wrote in 1871 that "a female zebra would not admit the addresses of a male ass until he was painted so as to resemble a zebra" while Wallace stated in 1871 that: "The stripes therefore may be of use by enabling stragglers to distinguish their fellows at a distance.". [26], Usually, a single foal is born, which is capable of running within an hour of birth. The difference in male/female weight can be up to 25% to 30%. These three groups are the only living members of the family Equidae. The Grevy’s are more closely related to the wild ass than the horse, while the plains zebra is more closely related to the horse. [107] In the late 19th century, the zoologist Walter Rothschild trained some zebras to draw a carriage in England, which he drove to Buckingham Palace to demonstrate the tame character of zebras to the public. [93], With their distinctive black-and-white stripes, zebras are among the most recognisable mammals. [26][28] Plains zebras have been recorded travelling 500 km (310 mi) between Namibia and Botswana, the longest land migration of mammals in Africa. Groups of lactating females are able to remain in groups with nonlactating ones and usually gather at foraging areas. Feeding activity can be described by the clearance rate (percentage of algal biomass removed from … are territorial, with territories of up to 12 google_alternate_color = "FFFFFF"; A number of estimates have been produced using a variety of assumptions and methods. Grevy's zebra lives in both the Horn The sole natural factor limiting the mouse population in the home is the limitation of resources such as food. In Rome, zebras are recorded to have pulled chariots during gladiator games starting in the reign of Caracalla (198 to 217 AD). A zebra is born with camouflage stripes, immediate mobility and a mother's lessons of survival skills. [1][2] Its origins may lay in the Latin equiferus meaning "wild horse"; from equus ("horse") and ferus ("wild, untamed"). [104], When Queen Charlotte received a zebra as a wedding gift in 1762, the animal became a source of fascination for the people of Britain. groupings lasting longer than a few months. Grasses make up about 70% of the Grevy's zebra's diet. References, Pictures: Grevy's In addition, reduced river flow, Mycobacteriosis is a common disease which Zebra Danio are susceptible to. Loud snorting in zebras is associated with alarm. ], In the past, the Grevy's zebra was found in the Awash Valley, the Ogaden region, and Asked by Wiki User. decline in the 1970's. The bird has been introduced to Puerto Rico and Portugal. Spec. However, this happens at three weeks of development for the plains zebra, four weeks for the mountain zebra, and five for Grévy's zebra. [39] Captive zebras have been bred with horses and donkeys; these are known as zebroids. Similar to horses, the foal will be able to stand up and walk just a few minutes after it is born. Human intervention has fragmented zebra ranges and populations. sq km (4.6 sq mi). Plains zebras are more water-dependent and live in more mesicenvironments than other species. †E. A zebra's dazzling stripes make them among the most recognisable mammals. Index | Links. Females are receptive to mating for three or four days within a widely variable reproductive cycle. *** A young Grevy's zebra can walk within a half hour of birth and can run for short 2. Maximum Age: Up to 18 years in the wild. The staggering birth rate is kept under control naturally by predators in the outdoors, but owls, hawks, cats and other hunters are absent from the typical attic or basement. Flattened ears, bared teeth, and abrupt movement of the heads may be used as threatening gestures, particularly among stallions. Endangered animals of the uncontrolled tourism in reserves, which causes disturbance and destruction of vegetation. population growth = (birth rate + immigration) – (death rate + emigration) answer choices ... and a zebra population has plenty of water. mi) (Kingdon 1997). [48] The quagga had brown and white stripes on the head and neck, brown upper parts and a white belly, tail and legs.[49]. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists the Grévy's zebra as endangered, the mountain zebra as vulnerable and the plains zebra as near-threatened. It can also be found natively on Timor island. The zebra mussel is a highly invasive species that was accidentally introduced to the Great Lakes region of the United States in the 1980s.

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