Within a few decades taxes were instead paid in beans, cotton and maize. Its leaders were executed and most of the mission towns were abandoned.  His account was finished around 1568, some 40 years after the campaigns it describes. , The Contact Period in Guatemala's northern Petén lowlands lasted from 1525 through to 1700. He was dispatched by Cortes to invade Guatemala during the Spanish expedition against the Aztecs. 586–587.  The refuge was attacked by Gonzalo de Alvarado y Contreras, brother of conquistador Pedro de Alvarado, in 1525, with 40 Spanish cavalry and 80 Spanish infantry, and some 2,000 Mexican and Kʼicheʼ allies. Surviving Itza and Kowoj were resettled in the new colonial towns by a mixture of persuasion and force.  Cortés then returned to Mexico by sea. A renowned conquistador who participated in several significant Spanish conquests, Pedro de Alvarado is best known for leading the conquest of Guatemala. Further Qʼanjobʼal reducciones were in place at San Pedro Soloma, San Juan Ixcoy and San Miguel Acatán by 1560.  In 1522 Cortés sent Mexican allies to scout the Soconusco region of lowland Chiapas, where they met new delegations from Iximche and Qʼumarkaj at Tuxpán; both of the powerful highland Maya kingdoms declared their loyalty to the king of Spain. Fray de León informed the colonial authorities that the practices of the natives were such that they were Christian in name only. They arrived at the north shore of Lake Petén Itzá on 13 March 1525.  The initial incursion into Guatemala was led by Pedro de Alvarado, who earned the military title of Adelantado in 1527; he answered to the Spanish crown via Hernán Cortés in Mexico.  The Land of War described an area that was undergoing conquest; it was a region of dense forest that was difficult for the Spanish to penetrate militarily. The Maya preferred raiding and ambush to large-scale warfare, using spears, arrows and wooden swords with inset obsidian blades; the Xinca of the southern coastal plain used poison on their arrows. Indigenous guides scouting the route from the highlands would not proceed further downriver than three leagues below Quiriguá, because the area was inhabited by the hostile Toquegua. , The following day the Spanish entered Tecpan Atitlan but found it deserted. In the battle that ensued, the Spanish and their indigenous allies suffered minor losses but the Pipil were able to flee into the forest, sheltered from Spanish pursuit by the weather and the vegetation. Taxisco and Nancintla fell soon afterwards. Many defending Ixil warriors withdrew to fight the fire, which allowed the Spanish to storm the entrance and break the defences. At first, Alvarado allied himself with the Kakchiquel nation in his conquest of their traditional rivals, the Quiché nation, but his cruelties alienated the Kakchiquel, and he needed several years to stamp out resistance in the region. … Before the conquest, this territory contained a number of competing Mesoamerican kingdoms, the majority of which were Maya. How do you put grass into a personification?  The Maya had never been unified as a single empire, but by the time the Spanish arrived Maya civilization was thousands of years old and had already seen the rise and fall of great cities. Dominican friar Bartolomé de las Casas arrived in the colony of Guatemala in 1537 and immediately campaigned to replace violent military conquest with peaceful missionary work.  When news of the killing of the messengers reached the Spanish at Iximche, the conquistadors marched against the Tzʼutujil with their Kaqchikel allies.  From the lake, Cortés continued south along the western slopes of the Maya Mountains, a particularly arduous journey that took 12 days to cover 32 kilometres (20 mi), during which he lost more than two-thirds of his horses. As Alvarado dug in and laid siege to the fortress, an army of approximately 8,000 Mam warriors descended on Zaculeu from the Cuchumatanes mountains to the north, drawn from those towns allied with the city.  Hernán Cortés received reports of rich, populated lands to the south and dispatched Pedro de Alvarado to investigate the region. Restall and Asselbergs 2007, p. 26. Mam warriors initially held the northern approaches against the Spanish infantry but fell back before repeated cavalry charges. Pedro Alvarado was a friend of Pancho Villa.  Pedro de Portocarrero was a nobleman who joined the initial invasion.  The Spanish abandoned Tecpán in 1527, because of the continuous Kaqchikel attacks, and moved to the Almolonga Valley to the east, refounding their capital on the site of today's San Miguel Escobar district of Ciudad Vieja, near Antigua Guatemala. Private adventurers thereafter entered into contracts with the Spanish Crown to conquer the newly discovered lands in return for tax revenues and the power to rule. [nb 7], In the colonial period, most of the surviving Chajoma were forcibly settled in the towns of San Juan Sacatepéquez, San Pedro Sacatepéquez and San Martín Jilotepeque as a result of the Spanish policy of congregaciones; the people were moved to whichever of the three towns was closest to their pre-conquest land holdings. On the upper slopes they clashed with a force of between four and five thousand Ixil warriors from Nebaj and nearby settlements. On 12 February 1524 Alvarado's Mexican allies were ambushed in the pass and driven back by Kʼicheʼ warriors but the Spanish cavalry charge that followed was a shock for the Kʼicheʼ, who had never before seen horses. , In 1598 Alfonso Criado de Castilla became governor of the Captaincy General of Guatemala.  The expedition against Zaculeu was apparently initiated after Kʼicheʼ bitterness at their failure to contain the Spanish at Qʼumarkaj, with the plan to trap the conquistadors in the city having been suggested to them by the Mam king, Kaybʼil Bʼalam; the resulting execution of the Kʼicheʼ kings was viewed as unjust.  At around this time the Spanish decided on the reduction of the independent (or "wild" from the Spanish point of view) Mopan Maya living to the north of Lake Izabal. The Spanish forces were routed with heavy losses; many of their indigenous allies were slain, and many more were captured alive by the Uspantek warriors only to be sacrificed on the altar of their deity Exbalamquen. He had a twin sister named Sara and brothers named Gomez, Juan, Gonzalo, and Jorge. Limón Aguirre 2008, p. 10. These letters were despatched to Tenochtitlan, addressed to Cortés but with a royal audience in mind; two of these letters are now lost. What the achievements of Pedro de Alvarado. When the army left the Basin of Mexico, it may have included as many as 20,000 native warriors from various kingdoms although the exact numbers are disputed. Pedro de Alvarado camped in the centre of the city and sent out scouts to find the enemy. Gaspar Arias, magistrate of Guatemala, penetrated the eastern Cuchumatanes with sixty Spanish infantry and three hundred allied indigenous warriors. The Poqomam warriors fell back in disorder in a chaotic retreat through the city, and were hunted down by the victorious conquistadors and their allies. Strike fear in the land : Pedro de Alvarado and the conquest of Guatemala, 1520-1541. Geographic features across Guatemala now bear Nahuatl placenames owing to the influence of these Mexican allies, who translated for the Spanish.  Alvarado's army left Tenochtitlan at the beginning of the dry season, sometime between the second half of November and December 1523. Gonzalo de Alvarado slew the Mam leader Canil Acab with his lance, at which point the Mam army's resistance was broken, and the surviving warriors fled to the hills. The battle was chaotic and lasted for most of the day but was finally decided by the Spanish cavalry, forcing the Poqomam reinforcements to withdraw.  Although the common view is that the Kʼicheʼ prince Tecun Uman died in the later battle near Olintepeque, the Spanish accounts are clear that at least one and possibly two of the lords of Qʼumarkaj died in the fierce battles upon the initial approach to Quetzaltenango.  This was a serious setback and Alvarado camped his army in Nancintla for eight days, during which time he sent two expeditions against the attacking army.  Maya warriors wore body armour in the form of quilted cotton that had been soaked in salt water to toughen it; the resulting armour compared favourably to the steel armour worn by the Spanish.  By August 1521 the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan had fallen to the Spanish. [nb 9] Paradoxically, it was simultaneously known as Verapaz ("True Peace"). Restall and Asselbergs 2007, p. 3. Many conquistadors viewed the Maya as "infidels" who needed to be forcefully converted and pacified, disregarding the achievements of their civilization.  It includes the modern departments of Baja Verapaz and Alta Verapaz, Izabal and Petén, as well as the eastern part of El Quiché and a part of the Mexican state of Chiapas.  In 1526 three Spanish captains, Juan Pérez Dardón, Sancho de Barahona and Bartolomé Becerra, invaded Chiquimula on the orders of Pedro de Alvarado. Alvarado accompanied Hernán Cortés in the conquest of Mexico (1519–21).  Other early conquistadors included Pedro de Alvarado's brothers Gómez de Alvarado, Jorge de Alvarado and Gonzalo de Alvarado y Contreras; and his cousins Gonzalo de Alvarado y Chávez, Hernando de Alvarado and Diego de Alvarado.  But Cortés' allies in Soconusco soon informed him that the Kʼicheʼ and the Kaqchikel were not loyal, and were instead harassing Spain's allies in the region. Population levels in the Guatemalan Highlands did not recover to their pre-conquest levels until the middle of the 20th century. [nb 1] The second polity in importance was that of their hostile neighbours, the Kowoj. They resettled in the important indigenous town of Nito, near the mouth of the Dulce River.  San Cristóbal Acasaguastlán and the surrounding area were reduced into colonial settlements by friars of the Dominican Order; at the time of the conquest the area was inhabited by Poqomchiʼ Maya and by the Nahuatl-speaking Pipil. , The Dominicans established themselves in Xocolo on the shore of Lake Izabal in the mid-16th century. 1485, død 4. juli 1541) var en spansk conquistador, der deltog i erobring af aztekerne i Mexico i 1519 og førte erobring af Maya i 1523.Blev kaldt "Tonatiuh" eller "Sol Gud" af aztekerne Kilder , From 1527 onwards the Spanish were increasingly active in the Yucatán Peninsula, establishing a number of colonies and towns by 1544, including Campeche and Valladolid in what is now Mexico. , Before the arrival of the Spanish, the western portion of the Pacific plain was dominated by the Kʼicheʼ and Kaqchikel states, while the eastern portion was occupied by the Pipil and the Xinca. Alvarado, Pedro de pā´ᵺrō dā älvärä´ᵺō , 1486–1541, Spanish conquistador. Get this from a library!  Almost a week later, on 18 February 1524, a Kʼicheʼ army confronted the Spanish army in the Quetzaltenango valley and were comprehensively defeated; many Kʼicheʼ nobles were among the dead.  Other groups are less well known and their precise territorial extent and political makeup remains obscure; among them were the Chinamita, the Kejache, the Icaiche, the Lakandon Chʼol, the Mopan, the Manche Chʼol and the Yalain. : 356. Ten days later the Spanish declared war on the Kaqchikel.  The Brevísima Relación de la Destrucción de las Indias ("Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies") was first published in 1552 in Seville.  Alvarado then turned to head upriver into the Sierra Madre mountains towards the Kʼicheʼ heartlands, crossing the pass into the fertile valley of Quetzaltenango. Alvarado's inhumanity to native populations is depicted in v…  The Land of War, from the 16th century through to the start of the 18th century, included a vast area from Sacapulas in the west to Nito on the Caribbean coast and extended northwards from Rabinal and Salamá, and was an intermediate area between the highlands and the northern lowlands.  Several Spanish expeditions followed in 1517 and 1519, making landfall on various parts of the Yucatán coast. Geographic features across Guatemala now bear Nahuatl placenames owing to the influence of these Mexican allies, who translated for the Spanish.  Acasaguastlán was first given in encomienda to conquistador Diego Salvatierra in 1526. [nb 3] The Kaqchikel kings provided native soldiers to assist the conquistadors against continuing Kʼicheʼ resistance and to help with the defeat of the neighbouring Tzʼutuhil kingdom. Recinos 1952, 1986, p. 75. Lovell et al.  The first Spanish reconnaissance of this region took place in 1524 by an expedition that included Hernando de Chávez, Juan Durán, Bartolomé Becerra and Cristóbal Salvatierra, amongst others.  On 28 February 1695, all three groups left their respective bases of operations to conquer the Lacandon. His family was quite wealthy and prominent.  The Spanish bombardment caused heavy loss of life on the island; many Itza Maya who fled to swim across the lake were killed in the water. New crops were also introduced; however, sugarcane and coffee led to plantations that economically exploited native labour. Pedro de Alvarado, Spanish conquistador who helped conquer Mexico and Central America for Spain in the 16th century. He described the inhabitants as quarrelsome and complained that they had built a pagan shrine in the hills among the ruins of pre-Columbian temples, where they burnt incense and offerings and sacrificed turkeys. In 1538 Escalante sailed for the Spanish Indies to serve under Pedro de Alvarado, first in Guatemala, then in Nueva Galicia, where he put down the native uprising in which Alvarado … [nb 4], A Kaqchikel priest foretold that the Kaqchikel gods would destroy the Spanish, causing the Kaqchikel people to abandon their city and flee to the forests and hills on 28 August 1524 (7 Ahmak in the Kaqchikel calendar). The Spanish and their allies arrived at the lakeshore after a day's hard march, without encountering any opposition. The new settlement immediately suffered a drop in population, but although the Amatique Toquegua were reported extinct before 1613 in some sources, Mercedarian friars were still attending to them in 1625. A lengthy battle followed during which the Spanish cavalry managed to outflank the Ixil army and forced them to retreat to their mountaintop fortress at Nebaj. By the time the Spanish physically arrived in the region this had collapsed to 150,000 because of the effects of the Old World diseases that had run ahead of them. Municipalidad de San Cristóbal Acasaguastlán 2011. Schele & Mathews 1999, p. 298. The constant flow of escapees fleeing the Spanish-held territories to find refuge with the Itza was a drain on the encomiendas. The Kʼicheʼ warriors, seeing their lords taken prisoner, attacked the Spaniards' indigenous allies and managed to kill one of the Spanish soldiers.  In addition to Spaniards, the invasion force probably included dozens of armed African slaves and freemen. The sources describing the Spanish conquest of Guatemala include those written by the Spanish themselves, among them two of four letters written by conquistador Pedro de Alvarado to Hernán Cortés in 1524, describing the initial campaign to subjugate the Guatemalan Highlands. This biography of Francisco Pizarro provides detailed information about his childhood, life, achievements, works & … Pedro de Portocarrero led the second attempt with a large infantry detachment but was unable to engage with the enemy due to the difficult mountain terrain, so returned to Nancintla. , During the campaign to conquer the Itza of Petén, the Spanish sent expeditions to harass and relocate the Mopan north of Lake Izabal and the Chʼol Maya of the Amatique forests to the east. Although heavily outnumbered, the deployment of Spanish cavalry and the firearms of the Spanish infantry eventually decided the battle.  As soon as they did so, he seized them and kept them as prisoners in his camp. The indigenous population soon rebelled against excessive Spanish demands, but the rebellion was quickly put down in April 1530.  After several months the Mam were reduced to starvation. Pedro de Alvarado was sent out by Hernán Cortés with 120 horsemen, 300 footsoldiers and several hundred Cholula and Tlaxcala auxiliaries; he was engaged in the conquest of the highlands of Guatemala from 1523 to 1527.  His corpse was then decapitated; the natives carried off his head, which was never recovered by the Spanish. 10, 258.  Modern knowledge of the impact of these diseases on populations with no prior exposure suggests that 33–50% of the population of the highlands perished. In his will, de Soto named Luis de Moscoso Alvarado the new leader of the expedition. Gall 1967, p. 41.  Old World cultural elements came to be thoroughly adopted by Maya groups, an example being the marimba, a musical instrument of African origin. The battle took place on 26 May 1524 and resulted in a significant reduction of the Xinca population. one could make a whole book ... out of the atrocities, barbarities, murders, clearances, ravages and other foul injustices perpetrated ... by those that went to Guatemala, San Marcos: Province of Tecusitlán and Lacandón, While most sources accept the modern town of Flores on Lake Petén Itzá as the location of Nojpetén/Tayasal, Arlen Chase argued that this identification is incorrect and that descriptions of Nojpetén correspond better to the archaeological site of. 1523 - Pedro de Alvarado was engaged in the conquest of the highlands of Guatemala.  Because of the fact that the land had not been possible to conquer by military means, the governor of Guatemala, Alonso de Maldonado, agreed to sign a contract promising he would not establish any new encomiendas in the area should Las Casas' strategy succeed. 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